As the business and general aviation industry gathers in Las Vegas for the annual NBAA business aviation conference and exhibition the week of Oct. 9, the FAA estimates that there are still more than 100,000 general aviation aircraft requiring upgrades to become compliant with its Jan. 1, 2020, ADS-B Out airspace mandate.
Duncan Aviation recently published a report noting that as of March 31, 73% of U.S.-registered business jets were not in compliance of that mandate.
Here are answers to 30 of the most common questions pertaining to ADS-B that Avionics has encountered through webinars, trade shows and engagement with readership over the past year.
The main purpose for the test flight is to test the avionics dynamically to assess the GPS performance during maneuvering.
Most NPEs are a result of improper avionics configuration or wiring during installation. Others are a result of component software compatibility, all of which could be detected with appropriate ground test equipment or flight check.
The FAA is working with the U.S. Defense Dept. and other federal, state and local agencies to address flight ID protocol.
The ADS-B Focus Team contacts owners via phone or email if able. A letter of finding is mailed to the address on the aircraft’s registration if we are unable to contact via phone or email.
We work through our international Flight Standards Office (AFS-50) to resolve non-U.S.-registered NPEs.
With a few exceptions, most NPEs will be treated as airworthiness issues and the ADS-B Focus Team will resolve them directly with the owner. Resolution of NPE aircraft for certificated operators will be coordinated through the principal inspectors.
This information can be found at: https://www.faa.gov/nextgen/equipadsb/levels/.
Verification of proper configuration and performance can be accomplished using appropriate ground test equipment or check flight using the Public ADS-B Performance Report service at https://adsbperformance.faa.gov/PAPRRequest.aspx.
The manufacturer’s statement of compliance should include a reference to compliance of the equipment performance requirements specified in§91.227. See Notice 8900.362.
From Notice 8900.362: "c. Compliance Statement. The installer has a statement of compliance (SOC) from the applicable manufacturer(s) or STC holder that the equipment (self-contained) or specific equipment pairing (ADS-B OUT transmitter and GNSS position sensor) have been shown, via TC, amended TC, or STC, to comply with all § 91.227 requirements. This SOC may be included in the applicable installation instructions. The installation instructions must address how the equipment is to be installed and maintained to comply with not only the applicable TSOs but also § 91.227 requirements."
These are operations in which the aircraft transmit non-descript ADS-B information to prevent association of flight data to sensitive missions.
The FAA has not exempted any public or private entity from compliance to the rule.
The aircraft would not be permitted to operate in the airspace identified in Federal Aviation Regulations Part 91.225 without prior authorization from ATC.
There are no plans to mandate additional Mode S capabilities in the U.S.
All aircraft operating in U.S. airspace specified in FAR 91.225 after Jan. 1, 2020, will need to equip for the mandate. As with any FAA rule, exemption requests can be submitted for consideration.
This would depend on the scope of the DER’s agreement with the applicable Aircraft Certification Office oversight. Initial ADS-B systems (transmitter and GPS pairing) must be approved via TC or STC.
The ADS-B Focus Team uses a multi-faceted mitigation strategy to reduce installation errors, including outreach, direct owner/operator coordination, repair station remediation, aircraft condition notices and letter of finding issued to owner/operator.
There is no language in AC 20-165B that waives the requirement for any aircraft to not transmit the length/width code when it’s on the surface. Helicopters hover-taxi and are airborne while they’re taxiing around the airport. When they’re in that configuration, they’re not required to transmit the length/width code. However, no requirement in FAA policy or guidance permits helicopters to not transmit a length/width code when it’s appropriate.
“We need to know what kind of transponders are in the aircraft, full part numbers, we need to know what kind of FMSs are in the aircraft. Are they already WAAS receivers? If not, do you have WAAS GPS receivers in the aircraft? If it’s a Honeywell package, we need to know the RMUs. Are they RMU 850s? Are they RMU 855s? Then the RCZs, radios, we need to know the dash numbers of the RCZ radios. With that baseline information, we can generate a proposal as to what it’s going to take to get your aircraft compliant. If it’s a Collins-configured aircraft, we primarily need to know the existing transponder part number and then we know whether it’s a ProLine 4 or ProLine 21, etc. A few of those specific questions will help us put a proposal together and once we know that, we can estimate the downtime as well.” – Gary Harpster, senior avionics modification specialist, Duncan Aviation.
“We kind of discourage it for obvious reasons. What we do see a lot and what we do refer to as “dual out installations” where they’ve got a 1090 UAT system installed on the same aircraft and both are transmitting is that they pick a link, most of the 1090 units now receive on both links, so you can get the traffic and the weather information from a single unit. But there is no restriction to limit broadcasts on both links. One particular item to remember in that case is that you need to make sure that your flight ID and your ICAO code are entered correctly on both units, otherwise an ADS-B In-equipped aircraft will see that as two aircraft flying very close to one another.” – James Marks, FAA ADS-B Focus Team.
No it is not. 7.1 is a European mandate for aircraft traveling to Europe.
The ADS-B rule is an airspace rule. A 135 operator may or may not be required to have a Mode S transponder. But if they’re only operating below 18,000 feet, they could certainly install a 1090 or a UAT system and be in compliance of the rule.
“We did revise certification project procedures to authorize certain OEAs to alleviate the requirement to submit a project notification letter, and that cut off about 30 days on average from the certification timeline. But I don’t know of any work internally to do anything beyond that.” – James Marks, ADS-B Focus Team Lead, FAA.
An aircraft must have a precise digital altimeter system and an autopilot to keep the aircraft inside RVSM airspace envelope. An aircraft equipped with ADS-B can fly in RVSM airspace immediately rather than wait for the FAA to approve its RVSM changes.
Please submit this question to 9-AVS-AIR-130FLTTEST@faa.gov.
The aircraft cannot operate in the airspace specified in §91.225 without prior authorization from the appropriate ATC facilities.
According to the FAA, Exemption 12555 is “a one time, grant of exemption from 14 CFR § 91.227(c) (1)(i) and (iii) for aircraft that are ADS-B Out equipped using qualifying GPS receivers when their performance falls below the requirement and backup surveillance is available.”
The agency established this exemption to address the performance characteristics associated with the three different variants of GPS receivers that are currently found in air transport category aircraft. Operators use these receivers to meet the ADS-B Out Navigation Integrity Category (NIC) requirements found in the code of Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), § 91.227(c).
The FAA’s website features a database of available equipment designed to meet the requirements of 14 CFR 91.225 and 91.227, either as separate components or complete installation solutions. The database includes both FAA-certified equipment and equipment not yet approved.
The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) uses the following dates:
Send an email to 9-AWA-AFS-300-ADSB-AvionicsCheck@faa.gov with the following information:
The FAA published an extensive list of guidelines as to what airspace and areas of the National Airspace System will not require ADS-B after Jan. 1, 2020.
A shorter snippet of this article was featured in our October/November issue. It has been updated with more information.